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On Plaintext-Aware Public-Key Encryption Schemes

James Birkett (2010) On Plaintext-Aware Public-Key Encryption Schemes.

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Abstract

Plaintext awareness is a property of a public-key encryption scheme intended to capture the idea that the only way to produce a valid ciphertext is to take a message and encrypt it. The idea is compelling, but the devil, as always, is in the details. The established de¯nition of plaintext awareness in the standard model is known as PA2 plaintext awareness and was introduced by Bellare and Palacio. We propose a modi¯ed de¯nition of plaintext awareness, which we call 2PA2, in which the arbitrary stateful plaintext creators of the PA2 de¯nition are replaced with a choice of two ¯xed stateless plaintext creators. We show that under reasonable conditions our new de¯nition is equivalent to the standard one. We also adapt techniques used by Teranishi and Ogata to show that no encryption scheme which allows arbitrarily long messages can be PA2 plaintext aware, a disadvantage which our new de¯nition does not appear to share. Dent has shown that a variant of the Cramer-Shoup encryption scheme based on the Di±e-Hellman problem is PA2 plaintext aware under the Di±e- Hellman Knowledge (DHK) assumption. We present a generalisation of this assumption to arbitrary subset membership problems, which we call the Sub- set Witness Knowledge (SWK) assumption, and use it to show that the generic Cramer-Shoup and Kurosawa-Desmedt encryption schemes based on hash proof systems are plaintext aware. In the case of the Di±e-Hellman problem, the SWK assumption is exactly the Di±e-Hellman Knowledge assumption, but we also discuss several other possible instantiations of this assumption.

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This is a Published version
This version's date is: 15/04/2010
This item is peer reviewed

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http://digirep.rhul.ac.uk/items/9d38ad1d-2409-ee40-2dc8-2457c278c156/1/

Item TypeThesis (Doctorial)
TitleOn Plaintext-Aware Public-Key Encryption Schemes
AuthorsBirkett, James
DepartmentsFaculty of Science\Mathematics
Deposited by () on 23-Jun-2010 in RHRO v3.2.
Last modified on 03-Jan-2014

Notes

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References

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